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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 53-55

Ophthalmic disorder in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adult


1 Department of Microbiology, Unit of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Al Neelain Medical Research Centre, Al Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan
2 Sudan Academy of Science, Council of Biological Science, New Technology and Environment, Khartoum, Sudan
3 Department of Microbiology, El Ribat University Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan

Correspondence Address:
Ahmed Bolad
Department of Microbiology, Unit of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Al Neelain Medical Research Centre, Al Neelain University, Khartoum
Sudan
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DOI: 10.4103/1858-6538.172100

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It is well known that about 90% of all cases of diabetes mellitus (DM) are type 2, which is characteristic for adults aged above 40 years. Ten percent is represented by type 1 DM, typical for children and young. Adult's onset diabetes represent a heterogeneous mixture of type 1 and type 2 DM, often difficult to differentiate between, those patients may have actually latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADAs), where beta-cell destruction is less aggressive, leading to a slower development of insulin dependency. Studies indicated that antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD 65) are good marker for diagnosis of autoimmune diabetes in adults who are not responding to oral hypoglycemic and may be at risk for getting complications namely increased risk of diabetic retinopathy. GAD 65 is mainly expressed in beta-cells of Langerhans but also in nonbeta-cells. GAD is an enzyme required for gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis that acts as neurotransmitter in neurons of central nervous system and in pancreatic islets. GABA is probably involved in controlling the release of insulin from secretary granules.


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